2018, 21(1)( Views / Downloads : 259 )
Taxonomic characteristics, distributions and hosts of dodder species (Cuscuta spp.) seen in agricultural and nonagricultural areas in Turkey
Ilhan KAYA, Yildiz NEMLI, Ibrahim DEMIR, 2018, 21(1):1-7
Abstract: The flowering parasitic plant Cuscuta genus belongs to Cuscutaceae family. 200 species of Cuscuta exist in the World. Sixteen species are registered in the flora of Turkey. C. campestris Yunck. is the common species of cultivated area in Turkey and has many host plants. C. approximata Bab., C. epithymum L. and C. monogyna Vahl. Parasite to some cultivated plants. Cuscuta genus have been divided to subgenus; C. campestris member of subgenus Grammica; C. monogyna member of subgenus Monogyna and the other two species belong to Cuscuta subgenus. C. campestris has very large distribution in all over Turkey. It grows from see level to 1500 m altitude as well. This species has many host cultivated or weeds. Alfalfa, suger beet, onion, tobacco, anise, cumin, paprika and chick pea are the most common host plants of C. Campestris. C. approximata has also a large distribution in Turkey. The most important host of this species is alfalfa. Alfalfa area have been contaminated by C. approximata and C. campestris together. C. epithymum shows a large morfological variation and has been divided to many subspecies also which has a large distribution. Cuscuta monogyna parasite to the woody plants, such as vine and nursery. The aim of this study, discuss and reveal about taxonomic characteristics, distribution and hosts of this four Cuscuta species.
Key Words: Cuscuta, distribution, host, taxonomic character
Determination of Segetal Flora In Wheat Growing Areas of Ağri Province
Ramazan GURBUZ, Sibel UYGUR, F. Nezihi UYGUR, 2018, 21(1):8-18
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine weed species, their distributions and densities in wheat growing areas of Ağrı province and its districts during wheat groving seasons of 2013 and 2014. For this aim surveys were done according to wheat production areas of Ağrı province and their districts Diyadin, Doğubayazıt, Eleşkirt, Hamur, Patnos, Taşlıçay and Tutak during June and July. To determine weed species in wheat fields surveys were conducted on the way of wheat production areas. Survey fields were chosen randomly by stopping at every 10 km. On each field, four 1 m2 quadrants were placed randomly, weed species inside the quadrants were counted and their percentage coverage areas were identified. The surveys resulted with 96 weed species belonging to 22 families in wheat fields. According to the weed species included, top 3 largest families were found to be Asteraceae (17), Poaceae (14) and Amaranthaceae (10) in 2013. In 2014 the surveys resulted with 99 weed species belonging to 22 families in wheat fields. According to the weed species included, top 3 largest families were found to be also Asteraceae (18), Poaceae (13) and Amaranthaceae (10). According to the both years result,a total of 103 different weed species belonging to 22 similar families were detected. And of all these species, 50 species were displayed a frequency of more than 10 percent totaly. Top 10 species were found as Avena fatua L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Sinapis arvensis L., Convolvulus galaticus Roston. Ex Choisy, Secale cereale L., Rumex crispus L., Lolium perenne L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. and Bromus spp. respectivelly.
Key Words: Ağri province, wheat, weed, survey
Weed Species in Citrus Orchards in Different Ecological Conditions and Comparison of Mealybug Species on Weed Species
Ezgi AHKEMOGLU, Sibel UYGUR, 2018, 21(1):19-32
Abstract: Weeds interacting with various factors within the agroecosystem may serve as hosts for plant diseases and other pests, perform as main and alternative hosts or they could be overwintering sites for those organisms. Interaction between mealybugs and weeds may be one of the examples which could be given. For this reason this project was conducted in the province of Adana between 2015-2016 in six different orange orchards on different locations (Karataş-Doğankent, Doğankent-İmamoğlu, İmamoğlu-Kozan) Weed species and the mealybug species on top of them were investigated. 78 weed species belonging to 24 plant families were identified. A citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) considered as the most substancial mealybug in citrus orchards, common mallow (Malva sylvestris L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), toadflax (Linaria sp.) were found. Other mealybug species: Chorizococcus rostellum (Lobdell), Peliococcus turanicus (Kiritshenko), Phenacoccus solani (Ferris), Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley).
Key Words: Weed, Mealybug, Orange orchard
Determination of the Weed Species, Frequency and Density in Lentil Fields in Diyarbakır Province
Fırat PALA, Husrev MENNAN, Abdullah DEMIR, 2018, 21(1):33-42
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to determine the species, frequency and density of weeds in Diyarbakır lentil fields and 61 lentil fields were investigated during the 2015-2016 production season. Seventy-one weed species (14 monocotyledons and 57 dicotyledons) belonging to 21 families were identified as the result of the surveys. When the distribution of the species determined in terms of families was examined, the families Poaceae (13 species), Asteraceae (12) and Brassicaceae (10) were in the top three. Sinapis arvensis (4.24 plant/m2), Ranunculus arvensis (3.84) and Galium aparine (3.70) were the first species according to their frequency of occurrence (≥ 70%). The weed species detected were compared with different studies using similarity index and 24 species were found different. On the other hand, Cuscuta spp. lentil area was recorded for the first time. The low similarity rates of weeds show that the agricultural and cultural measures (late planting, deep tillage and crop rotation) as well as the soil and climate factors and applied methods of management (manual harvesting, chopping and herbicide use) are inadequate. It is recommended that the lentil production areas be followed up taking into account the weed species and densities determined.
Key Words: Lentils, weeds, frequency, density, Diyarbakir
The Impact of Ryegrass Density and Different Herbicides on Wheat Yield and Efficacy of Various Herbicides against Ryegrass
Messaad KHAMMASSI, Hanene CHAABANE, Naima BELBAHRI, Thouraya SOUISSI, 2018, 21(1):43-52
Abstract: Herbicides are used to control ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) in cereals. In 2011/12, an experiment was conducted in Mateur, to evaluate the effect of herbicide treatments on ryegrass biomass and wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) yield. Similarly, a second experiment was conducted in five locations (Mateur, Fritissa, Metline, Tinja and Menzel Bourguiba) to quantify the losses caused by ryegrass to wheat yield. The results of the first experiment showed that Tolurex proved the most effective in reducing ryegrass biomass by 96.4%. The analysis of variance showed significant effect of herbicide treatments on wheat yield. The highest wheat yield was recorded with Tolurex (6.15 t ha-1), which improved the yield by 59%. The results of the second experiment indicated that the highest losses in ryegrass biomass were recorded with Menzel Bourguiba (1.5 t ha-1) with average density of ryegrass (393 plants m-2). The lowest losses (0.38 t ha-1) in ryegrass biomass were recorded with Metline, heavily infested with ryegrass (450 plants m-2). Yield of wheat was not correlated (r = 0.18 and p = 0.77) with ryegrass density. The average loss in yield was 0.9 t ha-1 (±0.4) with an average density of more than 390 plants m-². Tolurex, inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII), reduced ryegrass biomass, while improved wheat yield. It is recommended to use Tolurex for the control of ryegrass in the north of Tunisia. Moreover it is suspected that ryegrass has evolved resistance against commonly used acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor hericides.
Key Words: Density, Herbicide, Losses, Resistance, Ryegrass, Yield.
Studies on Biology of the Seed Germination of Syrian Mesquite [Prosopis farcta (Banks& Sol.) J.F.Mac.]
Bahadir SIN, Izzet KADIOGLU, Gamze ALTUNTAS, Meryem KEKEC, Tugba KAZANKIRAN, 2018, 21(1):53-60
Abstract: Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) J.F. Mac. is a perannual schrub plant with hard spines which is problematic in cultivated plants, unfiltered grounds, pastures and ruins, railways, highways and roads. This study was carried out between 2016-2017 in order to determine the optimum germination temperature, the ideal germination depth and the seed biology of mesquite plant. The seeds used in the study were collected in October 2016 from Tarsus district of Mersin province. Invivo studies were carried out at temperature values between 5-50 °C to determine the optimum germination temperature. dormancy breaking experiments (H2SO4, tip breaking, sanding, folding, soaking in water and hot water application) were performed following temperature assays and the most effective method was determined. Germination experiments were performed at different depths (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 cm) with 3 pieces of seeds with broken tips in cylindrical pots. At the end of experiments, the optimum germination temperature of prosopis plant was determined between 30-40 ºC and the best dormancy break was achieved with tip breaking method (95%). In the depth studies, it was determined that 100% of the seeds with dormancy broken at depths of 3 and 5 cm were germinated and germination rate decrease parallel to depth increase. It is scientifically important to understand the germination biology of prosopis and these results obtained promote further studies in the future.
Key Words: Prosopis, germinationbiology, dormancy, germination temperature, depth
Herbicide Toxicity and Alternative Control Strategies Against to Weeds
Caglar MENGUC, 2018, 21(1):61-73
Abstract: Plant diseases, pests and weeds are the most important factors that effect agricultural production in both Tuerkey and worldwide. Up to a hundred percent yield loss may occur without using proper plant protection methods. Generally, chemical control methodshave been preferred against plant pests, diseases and weeds both in the world and Turkey. Herbicides is being used about %47 percent worldwide, and herbicides are ranked as firstamong pesticides. Great amounts of used pesticides and application mistakes during usage posed the herbicide toxicity risk. The misusing and overusing herbicides cause herbicide toxicity and residue problem. Herbicide toxicity is hazardous not only for environment but also for living organisms and is a threat for next generations. Using alternative weed control strategies peculiar to crops instead of herbicides may discard toxicity problems and herbicide resistance in weeds.
Key Words: Herbicide, toxicity, weed, alternative control.