2018, 21(2)( Views / Downloads : 211 )
Weed Seeds Mixed to Wheat Grains in Muş Province
Melike BOZKURT, Nihat TURSUN, 2018, 21(2):1-15
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the weed seed contamination in the wheat grain with samples from 71 villages in Muş province in 2016. As a result, 18 different weed seeds belonging to 23 genus from 13 families werefound mixed to wheat grain in Muş Province and themost widespread weed species in the samples were from Apiaceae and Brassicaceae families. Among the weed seeds mixed to 1 kg of wheat, the highest number of seeds was belong to Sinapis arvensis L. with 459 seeds. This species was followed by Cephalaria syriaca (L.) Schrad., Polygonum aviculare L. and Caucalis daucoides L. with 241, 222, 214 seeds respectively. Based on the highest weight and mixing ratio criteria, C. daucoides ranked first with 4.13 g and 0.41%. This species was followed by C. syriaca (3.80 g and 0.38%), Galium aparine L. (2.10 g and 0.21%) and S. arvensis (1.77 g and 0.18%). The average weight of Muş province was 1621, the average weight and mixing ratio were 15.79 g and 1.58%.
Key Words: Wheat, Muş province, weed seeds, contamination
Investigation On Using Cover Crops For Weed Control In Pistachio Orchards In Şanlıurfa
Mehmet Salih GOKSU, Onur KOLOREN, 2018, 21(2):16-25
Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of the cover crop method in the control of weeds, which are a problem in pistachio orchards, was investigated. The study was conducted in two different pistachio orchards with 10 and 25 years (Young and Old Garden) in Birecik county of Sanliurfa. Four different cover crops such as Vicia sativa L. (common vetch), V.sativa (common vetch) + Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), V. villosa Roth. (hairy vetch), V. villosa Roth. (hairy vetch) + H. vulgare L. (barley) were used in the application of cover crops between rows. Weedy parcel was used for control. In the experiment, cover crops effecting on weed coverage (%), density (plant/m2), wet and dry weight of weeds were determined. As a result, 16 weed species were found to be in 9 different families. The average values of the weed coverage area (%) according to the application were found to be 8.33% in V. sativa + H. vulgare, 8.92% for V. villosa + H. vulgare, 9.17 % for V. sativa, 11.67% for V. villosa and 34.42% for the control, respectively in young garden (10 years). In the old garden (25 years), weed coverage area (%) were 2.83% for V. villosa + H. vulgare, 3.58% for V. villosa, 3.75% for V. sativa + H. vulgare, 4% for V. sativa and 17.50% for the control, respectively. All cover crop treatments were reduced the weeds coverage (%).
Key Words: Alternative control, pistachio, cover crop, weed
Effect of Organic Herbicides Applied by Different Water Volume on Weed Control
Onur KOLOREN, W. Thomas LANINI, 2018, 21(2):26-30
Abstract: The use of organic herbicides for controlling weeds in organic agriculture is increasing day by day. In this study, non-selective organic herbicides BioLink (4%, 6% and 9%), Matran® EC 15% and WeedZap 15% by adjuvant BioLink 1% with using different amounts of water (30 gal/A*=28.06 l/da and 60 gal/A=56.12 l/da) were investigated for the control of broadleaf weeds Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed), Portulaca oleracea L. (Common purslane) and narrowleaf Cyperus rotundus L. (Purple nutsedge) from summer weed species in field conditions . As a result, control of broadleaf weed species was found to be easier than narrowleaf weed control in this research. The efficacy values of herbicides decreased as the number of days increased after the application day of the herbicides. In addition, the amount of high volume water used increased the effectiveness of the herbicides. BioLink% 9 + BioLink%1 adjuvant application (56.12 l/da) for all three weed species was effective at 98.75% for A. retroflexus, 92.00% for P. oleracea and 40.00% for C. rotundus at 15th day count and statistically different from other applications.
*1 gal/acre : 0.93540 l/da.
Key Words: Organic herbicide, BioLink, Amaranthus retroflexus, Portulaca oleracea, Cyperus rotundus
Antibacterial Activity Determination of Different Species Belonging to Asteraceae Family
Dudu Duygu KILIC, Arif AYAR, Ceren BASKAN, Tuba YILDIRIM, 2018, 21(2):31-35
Abstract: The use of herbs as alternative medicine has increased dramatically in the last years. In recent years, due to the harmful effects of chemical drugs are frequently observed antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties of extracts which derived from plants and they have been used in medicine. In this study, aim was investigated the antibacterial activities of some weed species which distributed to ecologically for different conditions. The antibacterial activities of Anthemis tinctorial L., Matricaria chamomilla L. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. which belonging to Asteraceae family from Amasya province were determined by using disc diffusion and micro dilution methods. The methanolic extracts of these weeds were prepared with Soxhlet Extractor. The extracts were tested against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis. In this study, it was observed that weed extracts had antibacterial effects when they compared with control antibiotic group. the bacteria to be tested are sensitive to the control group antibiotics. According to the results of disc diffusion method, the highest antibacterial effect was identified A. tinctorial, M. chamomilla and A. biebersteinii respectively. The microdilution method was studied concentration range from 6.25 - to 50 mg/mL. In this context, it can be considered that these weed species are used as an alternative treatment and can lead to later antibacterial studies.
Key Words: Asteraceae, Disc diffusion, Micro dilution
A New Weed Species Record for the Flora of Turkey Ipomoea hederifolia L. (Convolvulaceae)
Levent Hancerli, Muhammet Ugurcan Ayata, Halil Cakan, Feyzullah Nezihi Uygur, Sibel Uygur, 2018, 21(2):36-38
Abstract: A new recorded species were collected and identified as Ipomoea hederifolia L. (Convolvulaceae). Although there are many weed species belonging to the same genus, Ipomoea, this weed was determined as a new species for the flora of Turkey. This species is one of the major threats for maize production nowadays in Çukurova Region.
Key Words : Flora, Turkey, Weed, Ipomoea hederifolia
Molecular Diagnosis and Phylogeny of the Rubus Species of Ordu Province
Onur KOLOREN, Secil EKER, 2018, 21(2):39-46
Abstract: The aim of this study; identify phylogenetic differences of Rubus spp., which are one of the most common weed species in the hazelnut and untreated areas of Ordu province in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey, by ITS intergenic spacer. For this study, 30 population samples were collected from the hazelnut gardens and untreated areas in the Ordu province. DNA extraction was made by modifying the CTAB (hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide) protocol as described by Haymes (1996). The sequence results in this study were compared with reference sequences from GenBank for the ribosomal RNA ITS intergenic spacer. Genetic distances for sequences were calculated using MEGA6 packet program and phylogeny trees were drawn using this date sets. We determined ten Rubus species among our samples (Fatsa 3-F3, Fatsa 6-F6, Persembe 2-P2, Persembe 5-P5, Camas 3-CM3, Ordu 1-O1, Saraycik 1-S1, Catalpinar 1-CT1, Catalpinar 2-CT2 ve Catalpinar 3-CT3). Six haplotype were determined. Haplotype I (F3), Haplotype III (P2), Haplotype IV (P5), Haplotype V (CM3, S1) ve Haplotype VI (O1, CT1, CT2, CT3) appeared as sister R. sanctus (KM037599), Rubus sp. (KM037207), R. divaricatus (KM037293), R. conothyrsoides (KM037285) and R. capricollensis (KM037256) with 100% nucleotide sequence similarity. The nucleotide sequence similarity between Haplotype II (F6) with R. capricollensis (KM037256) were 100%.
Key Words: Eastern Black Sea Region, ITS (internal transcribed spacer), PCR (polymerase chain reaction), Rubus spp., Weed