Turkish Journal of Weed Science


2019, 22(1)

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Effect of Temperature, Salinity and Sodium Bicarbonate on Germination of Russian Tumbleweed (Salsola ruthenica Iljin.)

Işık TEPE, Meryem DİMEN, 2019, 22(1):1-6

Abstract: Russian tumbleweed (Salsola ruthenica Iljin.) is a plant, which commonly places in agricultural areas, orchards, and roadsides. The aim of this study is to obtain information about seed germination physiology of Russian tumbleweed. The results may help improve control strategies for this weed, and enlighten to further studies. For this purpose, mature seeds of Russian tumbleweed were collected from the areas of near Lake Van in 2015. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory conditions to determine the effect of temperature, salinity (NaCl), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on seed germination of Russian tumbleweed. Seeds were germinated at five alternating temperatures (5/10, 10/20, 15/25, 20/30, and 25/35 ºC), five salt concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mM NaCl) and five sodium bicarbonate concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mM NaHCO3) with a 12 h photoperiod. OGT obtained at 15/25 ºC and germination percentage was 71.5%. The highest germination rate was determined at 0 mM (control) NaCl and NaHCO3, 71.5% and 65.5%, respectively. Finally, although it is known a halophyte plant, Russian tumbleweed hasbetter germination rates when it place salt or soda free mediums. 

Key Words: Russian tumbleweed, Salsola ruthenica, salt, seed germination, sodium bicarbonate

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EUsing Some Weeds in Tokat Province as Plant-Derived Dye

İzzet KADIOĞLU, Bahadır ŞİN, Burcu KINALI, 2019, 22(1):7-15

Abstract: Natural dyeing is the process of making use of the dye stuff from the root, stem, leaf and floret of the plants. This process is almost as old as the human history; and throughout the history, different plants have been used in different styles to dye. It's likely that natural dyeing was informed by cooking, as the process of extracting pigment is exactly like boiling food. There are many naturally occurring plants, minerals and crustaceans from which you can extract color and produce natural dyes. Plant dyes use no toxic or polluting chemicals, and the organic matter left over from dye plants can be put on the compost. In Anatolia, carpets and rugs have been dyed by using different plants. This research has been done to detect the color codes of the dyes which were derived from the use of the 7 different plants [wild rue (Peganum harmala L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), gopher plant (Euphorbia helioscopia L.), golden marquette (Anthemis tinctoria L.), catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.) and marsh-mallow (Althaea officinalis L.)] in 2 different methods (with and without mordant) on wool and cotton in Tokat province. Copper sulphate and cider vinegar has been used as mordant substance. Pure cotton dyed with the dyestuff derived from the plants has been specified according to the color codes in pantone color scale. Besides that, it has been observed that the cotton has eyepleasing colors. In accordance with the results, it has been confirmed that natural dyeing’s importance is gradually rising, considering the harms to environment and human health caused by the chemicals and synthetic dye stuff.

Key Words: Stain plant, weed, mordant, copper sulphate, apple vinegar

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Optimizing conditions for growth and sporulation of Alternaria macrospora MKP1: a biocontrol agent of Parthenium weed

Manpreet Kaur , Vijay Kumar, 2019, 22(1):17-23

Abstract: During a series of surveys for natural enemies of Parthenium hysterophorus, a leaf blight pathogen was isolated from the affected parts of the parthenium following the standard isolation techniques using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. Koch’s postulates were performed and found satisfactory for the isolate and proved to be pathogenic to this weed. On the basis of cultural, morphological and molecular characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Alternaria macrospora MKP1. The growth of the fungal pathogen is known to influence by environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and pH. Therefore, the main objective of the study was optimization of cultural conditions for the growth and sporulation of A. macrospora MKP1. The results of the present investigation indicated that physical factors greatly affected the growth and sporulation of the pathogen.

Key Words: Alternaria macrospora MKP1, Biocontrol, Parthenium hysterophorus, Relative humidity

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Effects of Essential Oils of Thyme and Sweet Marjoram on Seed Germination and Growing of Some Weeds

Figen Efil , İlhan Üremiş, 2019, 22(1):25-35

Abstract: In order to find alternative methods to chemical control of weeds, essential oils with the doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 μl/petri dish of thyme (Origanum syriacum L.) and sweet marjoram (O. majorana L.) were used for germination studies on Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed), Portulaca oleracea L. (common purslane), Physalis angulata L. (cutleaf groundcherry), Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link. (barnyard grass) and Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade). In addition, the same essential oils with the dosages of (1%, 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% were applied for growing studies on the same weeds. As average, both plants’ essential oils inhibited the weed germination more than 50% and especially S. nigrum and P. angulata were inhibited in high ratios. Both P. oleracea and S. nigrum’s growth were inhibited more than 50% by the essential oils.

Key Words: Thyme, sweet marjoram, essential oil, germination, growing inhibition

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Molecular Characterization of Sicyos Species in Ordu and Giresun Provinces

Berna Nur Yeşiltaş , ONUR KOLÖREN, 2019, 22(1):37-44

Abstract: Sicyos spp. which is invasive weed species in crops, roadside and uncultivated area in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The plant is an invasive weed species that is easily adapted to its environment with its clinging and climber structure and which compete with other plants and suppress on them. In this study, population samples of thirty Sicyos spp. collected from different locations of Ordu and Giresun provinces were determined to be genetic diversity by using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene regions. Analyzes were performed by using Neighbour-Joining (NJ), Maximum-Parsimony (MP) and Maximum-Likelihood (ML) algorithm. According to the results, two haplotypes were found. Haplotype-1 and Haplotype-2 were similar 100% S. davilae Rodr.-Arév. & Lira and S. angulatus L., respectively. A genetic relationship was found 68% and 74% (NJ / MP) between the nine samples and Haplotype-1, respectively. Haplotype-2 was similar to six samples at the rate 69%, 80%, 70% (NJ / MP / ML), respectively for phylogenetic relationship. S. davilae Rodr.-Arév. & Lira is a new species for our country flora.

Key Words : Sicyos spp., ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer), Molecular characterization

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Investigations for Dormancy Breaking in Myagrum perfoliatum L. (Musk Weed) Seeds

Olcay Bozdoğan , Furkan Uyar, Yücel KARAMAN, Çiğdem Demirtaş, Kemal Uçar, Nihat TURSUN, 2019, 22(1):45-52

Abstract: The study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of some chemicals, high and low temperature and hormone applications in different environments, different times and different doses to break the dormancy in Myagrum perfoliatum L. seeds. Chemically sodium hypochlorite, ethanol, pure water, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, microwave (120 W) for high and low temperature, negative 80 ºC, negative 80 ºC and positive 80 ºC (1 minute wait), gibberellic acid used as hormone. The best germination in light environment was determined as 100% in 30 minutes of 96% Ethanol and 32% of Hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes. In light-dark environment, the best germination was found in 32% hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes and 98%. In the dark, the best germination was determined to be 99% in 32% hydrochloric acid for 5 minutes. 96% Ethanol 30 min application gave the best germination only in light environment, 32% hydrochloric acid applied for 5 minutes both in light and light-dark and dark environment. As a result of this study, it is advisable to use 32% hydrochloric acid for breaking the dormancy of Myagrum perfoliatum seeds for 5 minutes, since this gives the best results in the three environments.

Key Words: Myagrum perfoliatum; Dormancy; Germination; Chemicals; Seed

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The Effects of Some Pre-emergence Herbicides Used on Germination and Development of Corn Plant

Tamer ÜSTÜNER, Ümmet DİRİ, 2019, 22(1):53-66

Abstract: The corn plant is very sensitive both to weeds and herbicides in the first stages of its development. Many herbicides are used in the chemical control against weeds in corn production. For this reason, it was investigated whether some herbicides that are applied before germination had phytotoxic effects on corn seed germination, root and shoot development. For this purpose, pendimethalin, dimethenamid-P, isoxaflutole+thiencarbazone-methyl+cyprosulfamide=(ITC)] was used as the herbicide before germination. The herbicide doses to be applied were; 300 ml/da, 100 ml/da and 35 ml/da 2, 3 and 4-fold (K) were applied in laboratory (petri), greenhouse (in viola and polyethylene tubes) and field conditions, respectively. The plant height measurements and phytotoxicity observations after germination of corn seed were made on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. In pendimethalin and dimethenamid-P applications in petri medium, the germination root lengths were found as 3 cm in K and 2K doses; however, they were 1 cm each in 3K and 4K doses; and in ITC, the germination root lengthsin K and 2K were 1 cm, 0.5 cm in 3K and 4K doses, and 4 cm in the control. In greenhouse setting, 7.5% phytotoxicity was observed in K dose in the administration of pendimethalin and dimethenamid-P in the vials, while it was 19.0% in 2K dose, 55.0% in 3K dose, and 78.0% in 4K dose. This phytotoxicity symptom was observed as brown stains at the point where the leaf and trunk met the soil surface and at the point where the trunk and the leaves met. In the greenhouse, brown necrosis was formed at the point where the root-trunk separation was after corn germination at 3K and 4K doses of pendimethalin and dimethenamid-P in polyethylene tubes. In ITC application, on the other hand, no phytotoxicity was observed. In the field trials, no phytotoxicity was observed in the parcels where these three herbicides were administered in K, 2K, 3K and 4K doses in the period from the germination of the corn seeds till their development.

Key Words: Corn, Pre-emergence application, Pendimethalin, Dimethenamid-P, Isoxaflutole+Thiencarbazone-methyl+Cyprosulfamide

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The Situation of Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in the Düzce Province of Turkey

Şadiye Zambak, Ahmet ULUDAĞ, 2019, 22(1):67-80

Abstract: Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) is an invasive alien species in many areas where it has been introduced other than its native range, which affects negatively biological diversity and ecosystem services. It has spread abundantly in East Blacksea and Trace regions, and partly in Middle Blacksea for the last 10 years although its existence has been known in Turkey since 1990s. This study was conducted to determine common ragweed populations in the Düzce Province in the west part of the Blacksea Region where is located in between two common ragweed invaded areas. Fourtyone populations of common ragweed is determined, which are all in roadsides and empty areas except one. The size of habitats invaded by common ragweed varied between 1 m2 and 4375 m2 and two third of a habitat as an average was covered with common ragweed. In the communities with common ragweed populations, 23 plant species belongs to 15 families were determined. Conyza sp. was the most distributed species, which has seen in 18 out of 38 communities. The following species to Conyza as the most distributed species were the alien species for Turkey as well and had importance as weed and/or invasive alien species in other countries as well as Turkey. It is possible that common ragweed might invade agricultural areas in the Düzce Province although it was not determined in agricultural areas in the province. It is thought that common ragweed had been introduced in Düzce in 1999 earthquake with aids came from overseas or international and national transport activities, and then it naturalized and spread due to disturbed habitats after the earthquake. It is shown with the populations determined in Düzce that common ragweed can be seen any suitable habitat from east to west through the north of Turkey.

Key Words: Soil texture, Introduction pathway, Alien plant, Earthquake, Transportation

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Determination of Prevalence and Density of Weed Species and Their Distribution According to Ecological Parameters in Banana (Musa cavendishii Lam. Ex. Payton) Orchards in Antalya Province

Esra Yılmaz, İzzet Kadıoğlu, Yasin emre Kitiş, 2019, 22(1):81-97

Abstract: The survey study was conducted in Alanya and Gazipaşa districts of Antalya province in order to determine the frequency and density of weed species in banana orchards. Another aim of the study was to determine the ecological factors effect distribution of the weed species. For this purpose, surveys were conducted in 120 different locations represent research area in two different periods (spring and autumn in 2016). During the surveys, 67 weed species belonging to 22 families, including 1 pteridophyta, 17 monocotyledonous and 49 dicotyledonous were recorded. The most common species according to observation frequency rate were; Portulaca oleracea L. (57.50%), Amaranthus albus L. (55%), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (46.67%), Oxalis corniculata L. (36.67%) and Cyperus rotundus L. (29,17%). General density was 27.43 pcs/m2. The observed weed species were correlated with soil properties of the banana orchards through using SPSS and CANOCO statistical programs. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to correlate weed species with soil properties. As a result of the analyzes, CCA explained 81% of the variation in weed distribution in the region and provided insights that some other factors rather than soil properties also influenced the distribution of weed species in the region.

Key Words: banana, survey, weed

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Studies on Weed Flora Density and Frequency of Species in Organic Anise in Burdur- Tefenni Province

Yıldız NEMLİ, Ahmet KAYNAR, Akın KAYADAN, 2019, 22(1):99-119

Abstract: About half anise production of Turkey have been realised in Burdur province. Tefenni, which is an important anise cultivation area of Burdur province, has about 1000 m altitute. This study was carried out at organic anise field in Tefenni, during the growing season (June- July) of anise in 2015 and 2016. The aim of this study is to determine weed species their observation frequency and density in organic anise. As a resut of observations, in 2015, 82 weed species belong to 28 families were identified. 50 species in the fields and around the fields have been grown. However, during 2016 vegetation period 94 weed species belong to 29 families have been detected; 71 species in the fields and 58 species around the fields have grown. In 2015 the Asteraceae (18 sp.), Poaceae (9 sp.), Brassicaceae (7 sp.) and Fabaceae (6 sp.) are the dominant families in the fields. In 2016, Asteraceae (14 sp.), Poaceae (14 sp.), Fabaceae (7 sp.), Apiaceae (6 sp.) were the families with the highest number of the species in the fields. According to the frequency occurence in the fields, Convolvulus arvensis (83%), Cynodon dactylon(58%), Chenopodium album (41%) were the first species in 2015 of year. However, around the fields Lactuca seriola (58%), Centaurea solstitialis (52%), Avena sterilis (47%), Bromus spp. (41%), C. arvensis (41%) have the highest frequency occurance. In the year of 2016, C. arvensis (70%), Ch. album (52%), Chondrilla juncea (41%), Cy. dactylon (37%) have been detected to have the highest frequency occurance in the fields. In the same year, around the fields L. seriola (58%), C. solstitialis (52%) and A. sterilis (47%) were the dominant species.

Key Words: Organicanise, weed flora, frequency, density

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Weed Species in Almond Areas in Akhisar-Kula (Manisa) and Datça (Muğla)

YILDIZ SOKAT, Ufuk ÇATIKKAŞ, 2019, 22(1):121-126

Abstract: In this study, weeds species, density and frequency of occurrence in Manisa and Muğla almond (Prunus dulcis) production areas were investigated. Surveys; In 2017, the province of Manisa (Akhisar, Kula) and the province of Muğla (Datça) at two periods done. Weed species, their frequencies and densities were determined on 28 garden , 680 decare area. 1-5 decares field 5; 6-10 decare areas 6; 10-20 decare areas 8; In the areas above 20 decares, 12 times, 1/4 m2 frames were thrown and counts of weeds were done. In the counts, broad-leaved weeds were evaluated as whole plant and narrow-leaved plant were counted as stalks. Weed density and frequency in m2 were determined from the obtained data. In the survey areas, 62 different weed species belonging to 27 families were identified. One of the species is parasite (Viscum album L.), 13 is narrow-leaved and 40 is broad-leaved weed species. Muğla: Among the broad-leaved weeds, the weed density and the incidence of weed were highest in Oxalis pes-caprae L. (18,57 plant/m2; 60%), Raphanus raphanistrum L. (16,03 plant/ m2; 56%), Convolvulus arvensis L. (5,36 plant/m2 ; 20%), Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. (8,72 plant/m2; 38%) and Cyperus rotundus L. (6,46 plant/m2; 36%). In the province of Manisa, Ranunculus arvensis L. is the most common and most common broad-leaved weed species. (18,57 plant/m2, 45%), Crepis spp. (16,12 plant/m2; %55), Matricaria chamomilla L. (15,19 plant/m2, 65%), Senecio vernalis (9,48 plant/m2, 32%), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (20,89 plant/m2;35%), Poa annua L. (20,5 plant /m2;31%) and Bromus tectorum L. (18,57 plant/m2;28%).

Key Words: Almond, weeds, weed density, weed frequency

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The Effect of Crops and Crop Rotations on Weed Management

Hilmi TORUN, Feyzullah Nezihi UYGUR, 2019, 22(1):127-132

Abstract: It is inevitable that no plant protection pests find in agricultural areas. In these plant protection pests, weeds do not cause visible symptoms to crops and affect the yield directly. Although chemical management against weeds is preferred because of its ease of applicability and economic situation, it is not possible to achieve sustainability in different methods of integrated weed management that is no longer effective nowadays due to similar reasons such as herbicide resistance and poor crop rotations. For this purpose, it is essential of sustainable agriculture that enriched application of the most successful crop rotation method, which reduces agricultural inputs of weed control in rest with the producers, is environment friendly and does not cause any herbicide residue. The most effective method for managing weed species, which vary according to the cultivated crop, is crop rotation, it is more successful than other weed management methods in terms of periodic changes of sowing and harvesting dates, phenology, competitiveness, fertilization requests and weed species of crops. In this review, the place and the importance of some crops used in crop rotations have been revealed.

Key Words Crop rotation, Crops, Weed management

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Sustainable Weed Management in Maize (Zea mays L.) Production: A Review in Perspective of Southern Asia

Jiban Shrestha, Krishna Prasad Timsina, Subash Subedi, Dipesh Pokhrel, Amit Chaudhary, 2019, 22(1):133-143

Abstract: Weeds and maize have equivalent competition for nutrients, water, space and light sources for their growth and development. There is a strong correlation between lower weed population and higher maize yield. Weed species in maize, critical period of crop-weed competition, methods of weeds control, herbicide tolerant maize cultivars and losses due to weeds and economics of weed control in maize are discussed in this article. The output of different research works clearly indicated that weed infestation led to 20-80% reduction in maize yield. The variation in the critical period of crop weed competition varies from two to six weeks after maize sown, but the most critical period is between 30-50 days after sowing. Weed control measures should be taken during this period to minimize the yield loss of maize and to increase the water and nutrient use efficiency. Chemical herbicides are popular and widely used to control weed in maize production systems, but several studies have shown their negative environmental consequences. Single approach-based weed management system becomes inefficient against maize weeds. The integrated weed management (IWM) system is recommended to apply which reduce the use of herbicides and focus on the sustainable crop production system.

Key Words: Maize, weeds, herbicide, economics, integrated weed management, sustainable production

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