ANA BÖLÜM

Turkish Journal of Weed Science


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2019, 22(2)

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Investigation other Plant Species That Host Rhinocyllus conicus Froel. (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae) and Larinus latus Herbst (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae) on Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner]

Olcay Bozdoğan, Sibel Uygur, 2019, 22(2):145-151

Abstract:The study was carried out on Rhinocyllus conicus Froel. (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae) and Larinus latus Herbst (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae) identified on Milk Thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner] to investigate their host under natural conditions in the Çukurova Region in 2010 and 2011. The surveys were conducted in five different directions: Karataş - Tuzla, Ceyhan - Yumurtalık, İmamoğlu - Kozan, Tarsus - Mersin and Çatalan - Karaisalı. Milk thistle [(Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner], and related species including italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus L.), scottish thistle (Onopordum spp.), purple star thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa L.), globe thistle (Echinops spp.), syrian thistle [Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass.], yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.), yellow plumed thistle [Cirsium acarna (L.) Moench.], Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plants were examined for promising natural enemies under natural conditions. As a result of the studies; it was determined that controlled 500 milk thistle plants were infested by L. latus at a rate of 56.60% and R. conicus at 56.80% and, they were not found on the other plants controlled in 2010. In 2011, 500 milk thistle plants were also checked. The infestation rate of L. latus on the weed was 52.20% and R. conicus was 66.80% and, these insects were not found on the other plants. This shows us that both natural enemies prefer only the milk thistle under natural conditions, and therefore they are promising natural enemies.

Key Words: Silybum marianum, Rhinocyllus conicus, Larinus latus, Natural enemy, Host

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Herbicidal Evaluation of the Aqueous Extract of Populus nigra L. Leaves on Six Weed Species

Zahir Muhammad, Naila Inayat, Rasool Khan, Muhammad Qurada, Rehman Ullah, Abdul Majeed, 2019, 22(2):153-157

Abstract: In a laboratory experiment, the herbicidal potential of poplar leaves was evaluated against six weed species that are Avena fatua, Phalaris minor, Rumex dentatus, Parthenium hysterophorus, Lepidium sativum and Silybum marianum. Aqueous extract of Populus nigra leaves’ powder obtained at 10, 15, and 20 g concentrations were used as treatments for testing germination and seedling growth responses of the target weed species. Germination and growth of all six weeds species were reduced with increasing concentration of the leaves. Results suggests the potential role of this plant’s extracts in the management of weeds; however, more work is needed to be conducted for identification of the allelochemicals present in poplar plant which exhibit inhibitory activities against seed germination and growth parameters of test plants.

Key Words: Populus nigra; weed suppression, herbicidal potential, growth regulators, , phenolics

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Identity of the Casuarina sp. in Turkey

Ian Timothy RILEY, Leyla Nur KORKMAZ, 2019, 22(2):159-168

Abstract: Sheoaks (Casuarina sp.) are a common ornamental and amenity trees grown in provinces of Turkey along the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts. In the literature this species is identified as Casuarina equisetifolia L., however, recent field observations have brought this into doubt. Qualitative and quantitative characters for 14 specimens (7 female and 7 male) collected from Izmir, Dalaman, Adana and Ceyhan, indicated that the correct determination is Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. This is a new record for Turkey for a species that is considered an invasive woody weed in up to 20 countries. However, as this species has been grown in Turkey of many decades and there is no evidence of naturalization, it is not considered to represent a potential threat and no immediate management action is considered necessary.

Key Words: Casual, Casuarina cunninghamiana, alien flora, identity, invasiveness

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Determination of Mortality Effects Against Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae of Different Plant Extracts

ŞEYMA YİĞİT, İslam Saruhan, İzzet AKÇA, 2019, 22(2):169-174

Abstract: Bu çalışmada, altı farklı bitki (Lavandula officinalis Miller (Lamiaceae), Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Hyoscyamus niger L. (Solanaceae,), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), Silybium marianum L. (Asteraceae) ve Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae)) ekstraktlarının Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae) larvaları üzerinde öldürücü etkileri araştırılmıştır. Test için her bir kaba 500 ml su ve bu suyun içine 10’ar adet 3. dönem C. pipiens larvası konulmuştur. Daha sonra bu kaplara bitki ekstraktlarından elde edilen solüsyonlar eklenmiştir. Çalışma beş gün boyunca takip edilerek, larvaların yüzde ölüm oranları belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın beşinci gününün sonunda en fazla öldürücü etki H. niger (%100) ekstraktında rastlanmış, bunu R. officinalis (% 98), C. sativum (%93), M. piperita (%68), L. officinalis (%65.0) ve S. marianum (%38) ekstraktları takip etmiştir. Çalışmada kullanılan ekstraktların LT50 (Letal Time) değerleri; H. niger için 1.42 gün/10 larva, R. officinalis için 1.94 gün/10 larva ve C. sativum için ise 3.27 gün/10 larva olarak bulunmuştur. LT90 değerleri ise; H. niger için 2.49 gün/10 larva, R. officinalis için 3.63 gün/10 larva ve C. sativum için ise 4.77 gün/10 larva şeklinde sıralanmıştır. Sonuç olarak, H. niger, R. officinalis ve C. sativum bitki ekstraktlarının, C. pipiens larvalarına karşı % 90’nın üzerinde öldürücü etki gösterdiği, bu zararlının mücadelesinde kullanılma potansiyeline sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir.  

Key Words: Plant extract, mosquito, Culex pipiens, lethal time, control

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Investigation of The Effect of Different Temperatures and Carbondioxide Values on Germination Rates and Times of Some Weeds

Olcay Bozdoğan, Yücel Karaman, Nihat TURSUN, 2019, 22(2):175-184

Abstract: Uncontrolled industrialization and some unconscious activities of people are accepted as the major causes of global warming. As a result of this, some gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2), have increased in the world and then the temperature values have increased in parallel with these experiences. In this context, the study carried out in the fully automated carbon dioxide application greenhouse at the Turgut Özal University, Faculty of Agriculture, Malatya, Solanum nigrum L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Echinochloa colonum L., Portulaca oleracea L., A. palmeri L., Sorghum halepense L. Pers . and Physalis angulata L. have different temperature (26/16 ° C, 29/19 ° C and 32/22 ° C) and carbon dioxide values (400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm) germination rates (Gmax) and duration (T50). T90, GUI7525 and GUI90-10). The study was conducted with the randomized plot design with four replications. As a result of the study, the highest (100%) and the lowest germination (5%) rates of weed seeds respectively; A. palmeri (26 ° C 400 ppm and 29 ° C 800 ppm) and Physalis angulata (29 ° C 600 and 800 ppm). Considering 90% of germinating seeds (T90), the shortest germination period (1.25 days) in Portulaca oleracea (32 ° C 600 ppm) and A. palmeri (29 ° C 1000 ppm and 32 ° 400, 800 and 1000 ppm) seeds It has been. The longest germination period (15.75 days) was in S. nigrum (29 ° C 600 ppm). As a result, different temperature and carbon dioxide values were found to increase or decrease the germination of weed seeds.

Key Words : Temperature, carbon dioxide, weed, germination effect

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Determination of Weed Species, Distributions and Frequency in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Fields of Antalya Province

Mine ÖZKİL, Ahmet Tansel SERİM, Hilmi TORUN, İlhan ÜREMİŞ, 2019, 22(2):185-191

Abstract: This study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 to determine weed species in cotton area in Antalya province. The surveys were conducted in Serik, Aksu and Manavgat districts where cotton cultivation was carried out intensively in Antalya. These districts covered nearly all of cotton fields in Antalya. Each sampling points were randomly counted from a 1-m2 frame depending on the size of cotton field, 10 quadrats up to 10 decare and 25 quadrats more than 100 decares. As a result of the study, 26 weed species belonging to 14 different families were determined. The most common species were Cyperus rotundus L.; 82.69%, Ipomoea triloba L.; 76.92%, Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Rafin; 38.46%, Convolvulus arvensis L.; 36.54%, Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link.; 25.00%, Xanthium strumarium L.; 21.15% and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.; 21.15% in cotton fields.

Key Words: Cotton, weed, survey, frequency, distribution

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Weed Species, Densities And Frequencies In Leaf Eaten Vegetable Crops In Aegean Region

Yildiz SOKAT, 2019, 22(2):193-201

Abstract: This study was carried out in 2015-2016 to determine weed species, density and frequencies in lettuce, parsley, dill, arugula, cress, mint, purslane area in the Aegean Region. weed species were determined at 155 fields and 907,92 decares area. . During the sampling, attention was paid to the representation of the region. Weed species were determined in winter and summer production these area. The determination of weed species in winter production was carried out in February-March and the determination of summer production was carried out in July and September. There were 54 genus 58 different weed species belonging to 25 families. 2 species are parasite, 12 species are narrow, others are broad-leaved weeds. In winter productions: the most dense Stellaria media (L.) P. Beauv. species, followed by Urtica urens L. from narrow-leaved weeds are the most dense species of Bromus tectorum L., followed by Poa annua L. In summer productions, the most dense Portulaca oleracea L. species followed by Amaranthus retroflexus L. is ; the most intense species of narrow-leaved weeds is Cyperus rotundus L., which is followed by Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. The most common in winter productions were S. media and P. Annua; P. oleracea and C. rotundus species were found in summer productions.

Key Words: Leaf edible vegetable, weed, frequency, density, Aegean Region

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Determination of Antibacterial Activities of Some Plant Extracts Against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato

Sabriye BELGÜZAR, Yusuf Yanar, Merve ÇETİN, Çiğdem Özyiğit, 2019, 22(2):203-209

Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of Grindelia robusta, Rhus coriaria, Alchemilla vulgaris, Juglans spp., Malva sylvestris, Saponaria officinalis, Prunella vulgaris, and Tanacetum vulgare against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). The plant extracts were added to King B medium before being autoclaved to reach concentrations of 0,06, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2%. The solidified King B medium was inoculated with the 100 µl of inoculums (1x106 cells/ml) and incubated at 27 °C for two days. Control was maintained in pure King B. The experiment was repeated twice with five replication. At the end incubation periods, bacterial concentrations were measured in the spectrophotometer. The obtained results indicated that 1,5% and 2% extracts of all plants were inhibited both of the test bacteria. Especially Grindelia robusta and Rhus coriaria extracts caused the highest effect on Cmm and Pst. Also, 0,25% extract of Alchemilla vulgaris displayed 76% and 96% growth inhibition on Cmm and Pst, respectively. Also, in the other plants inhibition rates increased depending of increase of consantration. As a result, it was determined that plant extracts used in the study had antibacterial effect on Cmm and Pst and these extracts of plants were found as promising in control of these disease.

Key Words: Plant extract, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, antibacterial effect., Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

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Weed Detection Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Image Processing Techniques

Bahadır ŞİN, İzzet Kadıoğlu, 2019, 22(2):211-217

Abstract: As parallel to population growth demand for food sources increase day by day. Despite presence of several management methods plant protection agents cause significant yield loss. Among all weeds are consiredered as the leading factors. Even though through years weeds were controlled with several methods, the utilization of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the development of drone and image processing techniques is important for development of management methods after detection, identification, observation and density determination of weed. The utilization of UAH can not only be used in detection and density estimation studies but also herbicide application which will promote economic control and minimize risk to environment. In this paper the improtance of UAH in weed control is reviewed.

Key Words: Unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV, Drone, weed, image processing

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